Medicine & Health

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 166
  • (2008) Vagholkar, Sanjyot; Ng, Judy; Chan, Raymond; Bunker, Jeremy; Zwar, N
    Journal Article
    Objective: In 2002, New South Wales (NSW) Health introduced an updated policy for occupational screening and vaccination against infectious diseases. This study describes healthcare worker (HCW) immunity to hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella based on serological screening, following introduction of this policy. Methods: HCW screening serology performed at two healthcare facilities in south western Sydney (Bankstown and Fairfield) was extracted for the period September 2003 to September 2005. Immunity to hepatitis B, MMR and varicella was quantitated and cross-tabulated against age, sex and staff risk category. Results: A total of 1,320 HCWs were screened. Almost two thirds were immune to hepatitis B while immunity to MMR and varicella ranged from 88% to 94%. Age stratification showed lower levels of measles immunity in those born after 1965. Conclusions: Despite availability of vaccination for over two decades, a significant proportion of HCWs at these two facilities were non-immune to hepatitis B. This is of concern for those non-immune staff involved in direct clinical care, who are at risk of blood and body fluid exposures. The small group of HCWs non-immune to MMR and varicella pose a risk to themselves and others in the event of an outbreak. Implications: There is a need for improved implementation of the occupational screening and vaccination policy, including better education of HCWs about the risks of non-immunity to vaccine preventable diseases. The revised 2007 NSW Health policy may assist this process and will need evaluation to determine whether HCW immunity improves in the coming years.

  • (2004) Muir, Alison; Meiser, Bettina; Tucker, Monica; Andrews, Leslie; Tucker, Katherine; Friedlander, Michael
    Journal Article
    There is significant interest in developing chemoprevention trials for women at high risk for breast cancer, yet it is not clear how acceptable these strategies are. Results of clinical trials with tamoxifen have demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of breast cancer in women at increased risk, but rates of participation in such trials have been lower than expected. No previous Studies have assessed the attitudes of high-risk women toward participating in chemoprevention trials using drugs causing ovarian Suppression. All women who had attended a large familial cancer clinic in Sydney, New South Wales, between 1994 and 2000 who were eligible for the Raloxifene and Zoladex Research Study being piloted in the United Kingdom at the time were approached. Telephone interviews were conducted with the 35 high-risk women willing to participate in this study. Almost half the women Surveyed expressed willingness to participate in a randomized trial, and slightly fewer women considered participating in a nonrandomized trial. The women who Would consider participating were younger than those who would not. The most frequently mentioned reasons for interest In participating in trials were to aid research, help others, and learn more, which indicates that altruism may have played a significant part in the women`s willingness to participate. Most women interviewed were participating in risk reduction and early detection strategies and expressed high interest in research screening tests. Given the interest in randomized trials and the fact that women at high risk for breast cancer consider the side effects as mainly acceptable, undertaking Such trials may be worthwhile.

  • (2008) Zablotska, Iryna; Prestage, Garrett; Frankland, Andrew; Chong, Stanley; Sutherland, Rob; Corrigan, Nick; Honnor, Geoff; Kippax, Susan
    Report
    Gay Community Periodic Surveys surveys are regularly conducted in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Cairns, Canberra, Adelaide and Perth to monitor changes in sexual and other risk practices over time among Australian gay men who are gay community attached, recruited from gay sex-on-premises venues, social sites and clinics.

  • (2003) Fogarty, Andrea; Rawstorne, Patrick; Prestage, Garrett; Grierson, Jeffrey; Grulich, Andrew; Kippax, Susan; Worth, Heather; Murphy, Dean
    Report
    Positive Health is a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-positive men and women living in NSW and Victoria. A major focus is the impact of HIV and associated treatments on health, and more generally, on the lived experience of People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) over time.

  • (2005) Persson, Asha; Fogarty, Andrea; Rawstorne, Patrick; Prestage, Garrett
    Report
    Part 1: The cultural context of HIV and body shape change: a report on the Northern Rivers regional arm of the Side Effects and Lipodystrophy project 2002-2004 Part 2: Positive health in the Northern Rivers: an analysis of northern rivers data from the Positive Health study

  • (2007) Zablotska, Iryna; Brown, Graham; Frankland, Andrew; Prestage, Garrett; Kippax, Susan; Langdon, Trish
    Report
    Gay Community Periodic Surveys surveys are regularly conducted in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Cairns, Canberra, Adelaide and Perth to monitor changes in sexual and other risk practices over time among Australian gay men who are gay community attached, recruited from gay sex-on-premises venues, social sites and clinics.

  • (2004) Holt, Martin; Jin, Fengyi; Grulich, Andrew; Murphy, Dean; Smith, Gary
    Report
    This report includes findings from a crosssectional study of social and behavioural risk factors for syphilis infection and transmission among MSM in Sydney (Part 1), as well as qualitative material on gay men's understandings and experiences of syphilis and other STIs (Part 2). The cross-sectional study recruited men diagnosed with syphilis from inner Sydney sexual health clinics, inviting them to complete a questionnaire about how they believed they contracted syphilis, their disease knowledge, sexual behaviour and risk practices for onward transmission. The qualitative material on syphilis, STIs and the perception and management of risk is taken from interviews with gay men in Sydney who engage in sexually adventurous sex practices. The results from the study provides useful information in guiding educational and public health responses to the increase in syphilis among MSM in Sydney.

  • (2010) Lee, Evelyn; Holt, Martin; Zablotska, Iryna; Prestage, Garrett; McKenzie, Tex; Batrouney, Colin; Kennedy, Mike; Dixon, Matt; de Wit, John
    Report
    The Melbourne Gay Community Periodic Survey is a cross-sectional survey of gay and homosexually active men recruited at a range of gay community sites in Melbourne. The project was funded by the Victorian Department of Health and supported by the Victorian AIDS Council and PLWHA Victoria. The major aim of the survey was to provide data on sexual, drug use and testing practices related to the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) among men involved in Melbourne’s gay community.

  • (2010) Holt, Martin; Zablotska, Iryna; Lee, Evelyn; Ryan, Dermot; Down, Ian; Heard, Todd; Nairn, Karen; Prestage, Garrett; de Wit, John
    Report
    The Town and Country Gay Community Survey is a cross-sectional survey of gay and homosexually active men recruited from Sydney and regional New South Wales. 1371 men were recruited for the Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey in August 2009 and 469 men were recruited between August and November 2009 from regional New South Wales. This report compares these two groups of men (from the city and regional areas) on a range of indicators.

  • (2010) Deacon, Rachel; Newland, Jamee; Harris, Magdalena; Treloar, Carla; Maher, Lisa
    Report
    In NSW, hepatitis C has been the subject of specific surveillance and prevention programs for many years. Despite this experience and significant investment, there remain challenges both in understanding the epidemiology of this virus and in implementing effective prevention programs. This study aimed to enhance the public health surveillance program and contribute to the evidence base for hepatitis C prevention in NSW. The aim of Phase One was to develop and trial a methodology for an ongoing program of enhanced surveillance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in NSW. Phase Two aimed to increase understanding of the practices, settings, networks and structures contributing to HCV infection.