Medicine & Health

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 25
  • (1998) Bradley, Peter; Rozenfeld, Anatoly; Lee, Kevin; Jamieson, Dana; Heiser, Gernot; Satoh, S
    Journal Article
    The first results obtained using a SOI device for microdosimetry applications are presented. Microbeam and broadbeam spectroscopy methods are used for determining minority carrier lifetime and radiation damage constants. A spectroscopy model is presented which includes the majority of effects that impact spectral resolution. Charge collection statistics were found to substantially affect spectral resolution. Lateral diffusion effects significantly complicate charge collection

  • (1998) Lutze, J; Roden, J; Holly, C; Wolfe, Joseph; Egerton, J; Ball, Malcolm
    Journal Article
    Growth under elevated [CO2] promoted spring frost damage in field grown seedlings of snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.), one of the most frost tolerant of eucalypts. Freezing began in the leaf midvein, consistent with it being a major site of frost damage under field conditions. The average ice nucleation temperature was higher in leaves grown under elevated [CO2] (– 5.7 oC versus – 4.3 oC), consistent with the greater incidence of frost damage in these leaves (34% versus 68% of leaves damaged). These results have major implications for agriculture, forestry and vegetation dynamics, as an increase in frost susceptibility may reduce potential gains in productivity from CO2 fertilization and may affect predictions of vegetation change based on increasing temperature.

  • (1997) Das, T; Munroe, Paul; Bandyopadhyay, Srikanta; Bell, Toby; Swain, M
    Journal Article

  • (1997) Nielssen, O.; Buhrich, N.; Finlay-Jones, R.
    Journal Article
    Objective: Intravenous sedation of involuntary psychiatric patients is practised in almost all hospitals in New South Wales. Despite its widespread use, little has been published about the medications used or their safety and efficacy. The present study reports the frequency and reasons for intravenous sedation, the medications used, and the incidence of adverse effects. Method: Eighteen of 21 acute psychiatric admission units in the State were reviewed. The medical records of a random sample of 495 patients admitted involuntarily during 1990 were examined and information from the progress notes, drug charts and physical observations was recorded and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Of the 495 patients, 132 (27%) were intravenously sedated. Eighty-six per cent (86%) of patients received a combination of haloperidol or diazepam, usually 20 mg of each drug. The threat of violence was the most significant patient characteristic predicting the use of intravenous sedation. Patients with mania or intoxication were relatively more likely to be intravenously sedated than other diagnostic categories. Patients admitted via accident and emergency departments and those admitted to teaching and metropolitan general hospitals compared to rural and large psychiatric hospitals were significantly more likely to receive intravenous sedation. The most common complications of intravenous sedation were dystonia (37%), hypotension (8%) and confusion (5%). The incidence of phlebitis and other extrapyramidal side-effects was probably under-reported. Conclusion: About one in four involuntary psychiatric patients receive intravenous sedation in NSW. Intravenous sedation is more likely when patients are admitted through accident and emergency departments to teaching or metropolitan hospitals, and pose a threat of violence. Intravenous sedation was shown to be a safe procedure given certain precautions.

  • (1999) Gorrie, Catherine; Duflou, J; Brown, Jennifer; Waite, Phil
    Journal Article

  • (1998) Bertrand, P. P; Kunze, W. A.; Bornstein, J. C.; Furness, J. B.
    Journal Article
    The patterns of innervation of the mucosa by axons of individual primary afferent neurons with cell bodies in the myenteric plexus were studied by mapping sites from which electrical stimulation of the mucosa elicited action potentials (APs) in their cell bodies. Segments of guinea-pig ileum were dissected to reveal the myenteric plexus over half of the intestinal circumference, leaving the mucosa intact over the other half. Intracellular recordings were taken from myenteric neurons located within 1 mm of the intact mucosa. Focal electrical stimuli were applied to the mucosa at multiple locations separated by about 1 mm. Neurons that responded had round or oval cell bodies with several long processes (Dogiel type II) and APs that had an inflection on the falling phase (AH-neurons). Responses consisted of single APs or bursts of APs. Maps of the mucosal projections of 30 neurons were generated. The maximum distances from which individual neurons responded were 7 mm circumferential and 2 mm oral or anal to the cell body with a higher proportion of responses from the oral regions. The areas of intact mucosa calculated to be innervated ranged from 1 mm2 up to approximately 15 mm2 (mean 3.9 mm2; median 2.5 mm2). It is estimated that the areas innervated would be two to three times larger under conditions where part of the mucosa is not removed. Some neurons also responded to a chemical or a mechanical stimulus applied to the mucosa within the electrically mapped area. It is concluded that intrinsic primary afferent neurons have overlapping receptive fields with 230 to 350 neurons innervating the same region of mucosa.

  • (1998) Kunze, W. A.; Furness, J. B.; Bertrand, P. P; Bornstein, J. C.
    Journal Article
    1. Isolated longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations from guinea-pig ileum were used to investigate the activity of myenteric neurons when the tissue was stretched in the circumferential direction. Membrane potentials were recorded via flexibly mounted intracellular recording electrodes containing Neurobiotin in 1 M KCl. The preparations were stretched to constant widths (+20% and +40% beyond slack width). 2. Multipolar neurons (Dogiel type II morphology) discharged spontaneous action potentials and proximal process potentials during maintained stretching, three of twenty-one at +20% stretch and seven of nine at +40% stretch. At the maximum extent of stretch tried, +40% beyond slack tissue width, action potentials in Dogiel type II neurons occurred at 10-33 Hz. Neurons with other morphologies were all uniaxonal. Some displayed spontaneous fast EPSPs or action potentials, three of forty one at +20% stretch and seven of nineteen at +40% stretch. 3. In seven of eight Dogiel type II neurons, action potentials or proximal process potentials persisted when membrane hyperpolarization was imposed via the recording electrode. Action potential discharge was abolished by hyperpolarization in seven of nine uniaxonal neurons; the exceptions were two orally projecting neurons. 4. Dogiel type II and uniaxonal neurons were classified as rapidly accommodating if they discharged action potentials only at the beginning of a 500 ms intracellular depolarizing pulse and slowly accommodating if they discharged for more than 250 ms. For Dogiel type II neurons, three of thirteen were slowly accommodating at +20% stretch and two of four at 40% stretch. For uniaxonal neurons the corresponding data were twelve of twenty-six and fifteen of nineteen neurons. The slowly accommodating state was associated with increased cell input resistance in uniaxonal neurons. 5. The spontaneous action potential discharge in Dogiel type II and uniaxonal neurons ceased when the muscle was relaxed pharmacologically by nicardipine (3 microM) or isoprenaline (1 microM), although the applied stretch was maintained. At the same time, evoked spike discharge became rapidly accommodating. 6. We conclude that many Dogiel type II neurons, and possibly some orally projecting uniaxonal neurons, are intrinsic, stretch-sensitive, primary afferent neurons that respond to muscle tension with sustained action potential discharge.

  • (1999) Lomax, A. E.; Sharkey, K. A.; Bertrand, P. P; Low, A. M.; Bornstein, J. C.; Furness, J. B.
    Journal Article
    Intracellular recordings were made from myenteric neurons of the guinea-pig distal colon to determine their electrical behaviour in response to intracellular current injection and stimulation of synaptic inputs. The recording microelectrode contained the intracellular marker biocytin, which was injected into impaled neurons so that electrophysiology, shape and immunohistochemistry could be correlated. Myenteric neurons in the distal colon were divided into four morphological groups based on their shapes and projections. One group (29 of the 78 that were characterized electrophysiologically, morphologically and immunohistochemically) was the multiaxonal Dogiel type II neurons, the majority (25/29) of which were calbindin immunoreactive. Each of these neurons had an inflection on the falling phase of the action potential that, in 24/29 neurons, was followed by a late afterhyperpolarizing potential (AHP). Slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials were recorded in 20 of 29 Dogiel type II neurons in response to high frequency internodal strand stimulation and two neurons responded with slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Low amplitude fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials occurred in 3 of 29 Dogiel type II neurons. Neurons of the other three groups were all uniaxonal: neurons with Dogiel type I morphology, filamentous ascending interneurons and small filamentous neurons with local projections to the longitudinal or circular muscle or to the tertiary plexus. Dogiel type I neurons were often immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase or calretinin, as were some small filamentous neurons, while all filamentous ascending interneurons tested were calretinin immunoreactive. All uniaxonal neurons exhibited prominent fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials and did not have a late AHP following a single action potential, that is, all uniaxonal neurons displayed S type electrophysiological characteristics. However, in 6/19 Dogiel type I neurons and 2/8 filamentous ascending interneurons, a prolonged hyperpolarizing potential ensued when more than one action potential was evoked. Slow depolarizing postsynaptic potentials were observed in 20/29 Dogiel type I neurons, 6/8 filamentous ascending interneurons and 8/12 small filamentous neurons. Six of 29 Dogiel type I neurons displayed slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, as did 2/8 filamentous ascending interneurons and 4/12 small filamentous neurons. These results indicate that myenteric neurons in the distal colon of the guinea-pig are electrophysiologically similar to myenteric neurons in the ileum, duodenum and proximal colon. Also, the correlation of AH electrophysiological characteristics with Dogiel type II morphology and S electrophysiological characteristics with uniaxonal morphology is preserved in this region. However, filamentous ascending interneurons have not been encountered in other regions of the gastrointestinal tract and there are differences between the synaptic properties of neurons in this region compared to other regions studied, including the presence of slow depolarizing postsynaptic potentials that appear to involve conductance increases and frequent slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.

  • (1998) Sharkey, K. A.; Lomax, A. E.; Bertrand, P. P; Furness, J. B.
    Journal Article
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prevertebral sympathetic ganglia receive inputs from intestinofugal neurons, with cell bodies located in the wall of the bowel. Intestinofugal neurons are part of the afferent limbs of intestino-intestinal reflexes. The aim of this study was to define the properties of intestinofugal neurons using intracellular recordings. METHODS: Intestinofugal neurons of the distal colon were retrogradely labeled from the inferior mesenteric ganglia. In whole mounts of the myenteric plexus/longitudinal muscle of the distal colon, labeled neurons were identified by their fluorescence and recordings were made using biocytin-filled electrodes. Labeled nerves were characterized immunohistochemically and morphologically. RESULTS: Intestinofugal neurons were uniaxonal neurons with multiple dendrites that had lamellar expansions. They were immunoreactive for choline acetyltransferase. Stimulation of nerve fiber tracts elicited large-amplitude excitatory postsynaptic potentials in all labeled neurons. Some received spontaneous fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Those cells that fired action potentials fired only one or two at the start of a depolarizing current pulse. No intestinofugal neurons had Dogiel type II morphology or a late afterhyperpolarizing potential. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinofugal neurons are likely to be activated by other neurons in the gut wall. They are not AH or Dogiel type II neurons. Thus they seem to be second order neurons in afferent pathways of intestino-intestinal reflexes.

  • (1998) Lomax, A. E.; Bertrand, P. P; Furness, J. B.
    Journal Article
    Simultaneous immunofluorescence labelling was used to investigate the patterns of colocalisation of the NK1 tachykinin receptor with other neuronal markers, and hence determine the functional classes of neuron that bear the NK1 receptor in the guinea-pig ileum. In the myenteric plexus, 85% of NK1 receptor-immunoreactive (NK1r-IR) nerve cells had nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity and the remaining 15% were immunoreactive for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Of the latter group, about 50% were immunoreactive for both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin (SOM), and had the morphologies of secretomotor neurons. Many of the remaining ChAT neurons were immunoreactive for calbindin or tachykinins (TK), but not both. These calbindin immunoreactive neurons had Dogiel type II morphology. No NK1r-IR nerve cells in the myenteric plexus had serotonin or calretinin immunoreactivity. In the submucosal ganglia, 84% of NK1r-IR nerve cells had neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity and 16% were immunoreactive for TK. It is concluded that NK1r-IR occurs in five classes of neuron; namely, in the majority of NOS-immunoreactive inhibitory motor neurons, in ChAT/TK-immunoreactive excitatory neurons to the circular muscle, in all ChAT/NPY/SOM-immunoreactive secretomotor neurons, in a small proportion of ChAT/calbindin myenteric neurons, and in about 50% of ChAT/TK submucosal neurons.