Medicine & Health

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
  • (1997) Das, T; Munroe, Paul; Bandyopadhyay, Srikanta; Bell, Toby; Swain, M
    Journal Article

  • (1995) Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Yanling; Choi, Caroline; Chen, B; Sorrell, Charles
    Journal Article
    Sr-based 123 compounds R1-xCaxSr2Cu2.7Mo0.3Oy with R = Pr, Nd, and Y are successfully stabilised by partial substitution of Mo for Cu. A tetragonal-orthorhomic-tetragonal transition is observed for R = Y and Nd, which is induced by different oxygen content in the samples. Tc of the samples is sensitive to the oxygen content other than the structure. For Pr-contained samples the resistivity decreases systematically with increasing the Ca dopant and oxygen content. The results show that the hybridisation of the conduction electrons with the 4f band of Pr in Sr-based 123 compounds is weaker than that in Ba-based 123 compounds.

  • (1997) Diwan, Ashish; Drummond, Robert
    Journal Article
    A case of severe osteolysis caused by third-body wear using a Harris—Galante II cup (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) is reported. The prosthesis was inserted in a 23-year-old man 4.5 years ago. At revision, 3 triangular tynes of the acetabular shell rim were found embedded in the polyethylene liner.

  • (1998) Clarke, Raymond; Catalan, Gale; Diwan, Ashish; Kearsley, John
    Journal Article
    Background. Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is characterised by congenital vertebral fusion of the cervical spine and a wide spectrum of associated anomalies. KFS has often been considered a sporadic syndrome. However, since the publication of the original KFS classification early this century, a number of KFS families have indicated heterogeneity complicated by a broad range of variable expression. Objective. The two major objectives of this study were (1) to identify differences and similarities in the postnatal appearance, morphology, position and inheritance of vertebral fusions within and between KFS families and (2) to establish a new KFS classification focussed on KFS aetiology. Materials and methods. Vertebral fusions were assessed via spinal radiography. Chromosomal karyotypes were performed using routine cytogenetics. Results. The medical histories of three KFS families are presented. The postnatal time, position and appearance of vertebral fusions, associated anomalies and mode of inheritance were different for the three KFS families. Four classes of KFS are described in a comprehensive classification table that allays much of the uncertainty arising from KFS heterogeneity and variable expression. Conclusion. We have described four different KFS classes (KF1–4) within a comprehensive classification that addresses KFS genetic heterogeneity. The position of vertebral fusions in the cervical spine and their incidence within affected families are delineating features of KFS.

  • (1998) Diwan, Ashish; Diamond, Terrence; Clarke, Raymond; Patel, Minoo; Murrell, George; Sekel, Ronald
    Journal Article

  • (1995) O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Hoffman, D.M.; Ho, K.K.Y.
    Journal Article

  • (1998) O'Sullivan, Anthony; Crampton, L; Freund, Judith; Ho, Ken
    Journal Article
    The route of estrogen replacement therapy has a major impact on the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. Estrogen administration by the oral, but not the transdermal route, reduces IGF-I and increases GH levels in postmenopausal women. To investigate whether these perturbations have metabolic consequences, we compared the effects of 24 wk each of oral (Premarin 1.25 mg) and transdermal (Estraderm 100TTS) estrogen on energy metabolism and body composition in 18 postmenopausal women in an open-label randomized crossover study. Energy expenditure, lipid oxidation (lipid(ox)), and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOox) were measured by indirect calorimetry in the fasted and fed state before and after 2 and 6 mon treatment. Lean body mass, fat mass, and total body bone mineral density were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry before and after 6 mon treatment. Mean (+/-SE) Luteinizing hormone levels fell to comparable levels during oral and transdermal estrogen, and bone mineral density was significantly increased by both treatments. Mean IGF-I was significantly lower during oral estrogen (77+/-7 versus 97+/-7 microg/liter, P < 0.05) treatment. Lipid(ox) 30-60 min after a standardized meal was significantly lower (36+/-5 versus 54+/-5 mg/min, P < 0.01) and CHOox higher (147+/-13 versus 109+/-12 mg/min, P < 0.05) with oral compared with transdermal estrogen. Oral estrogen resulted in a 1.2+/-0.5 kg (P < 0.05) increase in fat mass and a 1.2+/-0.4 kg (P < 0.01) decrease in lean mass compared with transdermal estrogen. Lean body mass (0.4+/-0.2 kg) and fat mass (0. 1+/-0.4 kg) did not change significantly during transdermal estrogen. In summary, when compared with the transdermal route, oral estrogen reduces lipid(ox), increases fat mass, and reduces lean body mass. The route of estrogen therapy confers distinct and divergent effects on substrate oxidation and body composition. The suppression of lipidox during oral estrogen therapy may increase fat mass although the fall in IGF-I may lead to a loss of lean body mass. The route-dependent changes in body composition observed during estrogen replacement therapy may have important implications for postmenopausal health.

  • (1997) O'Sullivan, Anthony; Casey, John
    Journal Article

  • (1997) Kennedy, Michael; O'Sullivan, Anthony
    Journal Article

  • (1995) O'Sullivan, Anthony; Kelly, John; Hoffman, David; Baxter, R; Ho, K.K.Y.
    Journal Article
    Short term GH administration increases lipid breakdown and oxidation (lipidox) and reduces glucose uptake and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOox). It is not clear whether similar shifts in substrate oxidation occur in acromegaly, and our aim was to investigate this. Using indirect calorimetry, we compared energy expenditure, CHOox, and lipidox in 20 acromegalic patients and 20 normal subjects pair-matched for sex, age, height, and weight. Investigations were performed in the basal state (12-h fast) and during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Acromegalic patients had significantly higher fasting glucose levels and greater glucose and insulin responses during an OGTT than normal subjects. Fasting nonesterified free fatty acid and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-1 levels were similar in the two groups, and both were acutely suppressed by oral glucose to the same degree. Basal energy expenditure was significantly greater in the acromegalic patients (1682 +/- 49 vs. 1540 +/- 45 Cal/24 h; P < 0.05), who showed a trend toward higher basal CHOox. Oral glucose resulted in a significantly higher rise in energy expenditure in the normal compared to the acromegalic subjects. During the OGTT, CHOox significantly increased in both groups, but rose to a higher level in the acromegalic patients (177 +/- 10 vs. 138 +/- 9 mg/min; P = 0.004). Oral glucose significantly reduced lipidox in both groups, but lipidox was reduced to a significantly lower level in the acromegalic patients (32 +/- 4 vs. 46 +/- 3 mg/min; P = 0.004). In acromegaly, basal CHOox (r = 0.56; P = 0.01) and postglucose CHOox (r = 0.79; P = 0.0001) were both positively correlated to IGF-I, but not to insulin and/or glucose. In normal subjects, postglucose CHOox was positively correlated to IGF- I. In summary, hyperinsulinemia in acromegaly was associated with higher glucose levels and a blunted thermogenic response to glucose, and displayed no relationship to the pattern of substrate oxidation. CHOox was increased, and lipidox was reduced in acromegaly, and the extent of IGF-I elevation was related to CHOox in the basal and postglucose states. We conclude that 1) the chronic effects of GH excess on substrate oxidation differ from the short term effects of GH administration; 2) impaired insulin action in acromegaly extends to effects on energy expenditure; and 3) IGF-I may be an important regulator of substrate oxidation in acromegaly.