Medicine & Health

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • (2008) Blatt, S; Ludlow, A; Campbell, Gabrielle; Thomsen, J; Zelevinsky, T; Boyd, Mark; Ye, J; Baillard, X; Fouche, M; Le Targat, R; Brusch, A; Lemonde, P; Takamoto, M; Hong, Fan; Katori, H; Flambaum, Victor
    Journal Article

  • (2008) Cranney, Jacquelyn; Jones, Gwyn; Morris, Suzanne; Starfield, Sue; Martire, Kristy; Newell, Benjamin; Wong, Kwan
    Conference Paper

  • (2009) Adam, Philippe; de Wit, John; Toskin, I; Mathers, Bradley; Nashkhoev, I; Lyerla, Rob; Rugg, D
    Journal Article
    Background: HIV prevalence data suggest that men who have sex with men (MSM) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk of HIV The aim of this article is to present global estimates on key HIV prevention needs and responses among MSM in LMIC. Methods: Data on HIV testing, HIV prevention coverage, HIV knowledge and condom use among MSM were derived from UNGASS country progress reports submitted in 2008. Eligible country estimates were used to calculate global and regional estimates, weighted for the size of MSM populations. Results: Of 147 LMIC, 45% reported at least 1 indicator that reflects the HIV prevention needs and responses in MSM. Global weighted estimates indicate that on average 31 % of MSM in LMIC were tested for HIV; 33% were reached by HIV prevention programs; 44% had correct HIV knowledge; and 54% used condoms the last time they had anal sex with a man. Conclusions: The 2008 UNGASS country reports represent the largest harmonized data set to date of HIV prevention needs and responses among MSM in LMIC. Although reporting is incomplete and does not always conform to requirements, findings confirm that, in many LMIC, HIV prevention responses in MSM need substantial strengthening.

  • (2009) Toskin, I; Nashkhoev, Magomed; Lyerla, Rob; Rugg, D; Mathers, Bradley; Degenhardt, Louisa; Adam, Philippe
    Journal Article
    Objectives: The 2001 Declaration of Commitment from the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) set the prevention of HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) as an important priority in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. This article examines data gathered to monitor the fulfillment of this commitment in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where resources to develop an effective response to HIV are limited and where injecting drug use is reported to occur in 99 (of 147) countries, home to 75% of the estimated 15.9 million global IDU population. Methods: Data relating to injecting drug use submitted by LMICs to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) in the 2008 reporting round for monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS were reviewed. The quality of the data reported was assessed and country data were aggregated and compared to determine progress in HIV prevention efforts. For each indicator, the mean value weighted for the size of each country's IDU population was determined; regional estimates were also made. Results: Reporting was inconsistent between countries. Forty percent of LMIC (40/99), where injecting occurs, reported data for 1 or more of the 5 indicators pertinent to HIV prevention among IDUs. Many of the data reported were excluded from this analysis because the indicators used by countries were not consistent with those defined by UNAIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group and could not be compared. Data from 32 of 99 countries met our inclusion criteria. These 32 countries account for approximately two-thirds (68%) of the total estimated IDU population in all LMICs. The IDU population weighted means are as follows: 36% of IDUs tested for HIV in the last year; 26% of IDUs reached with HIV prevention programs in the last year; 45% of IDUs with correct HIV prevention knowledge; 37% of IDUs used a condom at last sexual intercourse; and 63% of IDUs used a clean syringe at last injection. Marked variance was observed in the data reported between different regions. Conclusions: Data from the 2008 United Nations General Assembly Special Session reporting round provide a baseline against which future progress might be measured. The data indicate a wide variation in HIV service coverage for IDUs and a wide divergence in HIV knowledge and risk behaviors among IDUs in different countries. Countries should be encouraged and assisted in monitoring and reporting on HIV prevention for IDUs.

  • (2007) Hughes, Caitlin; Stevens, Alex
    Report
    In 2004, the Beckley Foundation reported on the legal changes that took place in Portugal in 2001 (Allen, Trace & Klein 2004). This report aims to provide an updated overview of the effects of these changes, using data from the evaluations that have been carried out and from new interviews with key stakeholders in Portugal. We reviewed the available evaluative reports (Moreira, Trigueiros & Antunes 2007; Tavares, Graça, Martins & Asensio 2005; Trigo de Roza 2007) and also carried out 11 interviews with key stakeholders in October 2007. These included representatives of the Institute for Drugs and Drug Addiction (the government body in charge of researching and responding to drug addiction and use), non-governmental organisations, political parties and national and international drug researchers1. This report provides information for an international audience on the current trends and the perceptions of key stakeholders regarding the major impacts, successes, and challenges in adopting decriminalization.

  • (2007) Prestage, Garrett; Degenhardt, Louisa; Jin, F; Grulich, Andrew; Imrie, John; Kaldor, John; Kippax, Susan
    Journal Article